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Diagnostic and Therapeutic Spine Injections and Spinal Pain Mapping

  • Epidural injections: Used to diagnose and treat pain arising from the nerves in the spine. They can be performed with just local anesthetic if the goal is to diagnose pain, or they can be performed with local anesthetic and steroid for a diagnostic AND potentially therapeutic procedure.
    • Cervical epidural steroid injections
    • Lumbar epidural steroid injections
    • Thoracic epidural steroid injections
    • Translaminar epidural injection: The epidural space is entered between two vertebrae (the lamina) to cover a broad area.
    • Transforaminal epidural injection: The epidural space is entered a space containing only one spinal nerve to cover a very specific area.
    • Selective nerve root block: This is approached like a transforaminal injection but performed without steroids and using only a very small amount of local anesthetic. This injection is usually done before surgery to predict the chances of success of a surgery limited to a specific location.
  • Facet injections and medial branch blocks
  • Treatment for “whiplash” injury

    • Cervical (neck)
    • Thoracic (mid back)
    • Lumbar (low back)
    • DX: used to treat facet pain, low back pain with normal radiological findings, post-laminectomy pain without arachnoiditis
  • Sacroiliac joint injections
  • Cluneal nerve block
  • Psoas compartment block
  • Discograms,Intradiscal steroid
  • Diagnostic discogram in the lumbar, cervical or thoracic spine
  • Low-dose naltrexone (LDN): This treatment has been found to reduce the pain associated with fibromyalgia, Crohn’s disease, MS, and complex regional pain syndrome. A novel anti-inflammatory agent for the central nervous system.

Stimulation / Implants

  • Spinal cord stimulation - patient evaluation, implantation and management
  • Peripheral nerve stimulation
  • Pain mapping - mapping of spinal pain through selective nerve root blocks, medial branch nerve blocks of the facet joints, peripheral nerve blocks, provocative discography and sympathetic blocks in the diagnosis of low back pain of undetermined etiology.
  • StimWave: An implanted wireless spinal cord and peripheral nerve stimulator, StimWave is implanted with a needle near the targeted nerves to achieve relief from chronic pain and improve mobility.

Sympathetic And Parasympathetic Blocks For Extremity Pain, Abdominal Pain, Pelvic Pain, Perineal Pain, Ptsd

  • Sympathetic blocks: Used to diagnose and treat pain conditions arising from the sympathetic nervous system. Two such conditions are Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 and Type 2, commonly referred to as CRPS 1 and CRPS 2. CRPS 1 and 2 used to be referred to as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy and Causalgia and sometimes these older names are still used.
    • Sympathetic blocks for extremities, head, neck
      • Stellate ganglion block
      • Lumbar sympathetic block
    • Sympathetic blocks for abdominal, pelvic and perineal pain
      • Celiac plexus block
      • Superior hypogastric plexus block
      • Ganglion impar block
  • Lumbar Sympathetic Blocks for lower body sympathetic pain
  • Stellate Ganglion blocks for sympathetically pain

Upper And Lower Extremity

  • Upper and lower extremities
    • Knee joint injection
    • Superior tibio-fibular joint injection
    • Knee ligaments and tendons
      • Medial collateral ligament
      • Infrapatella tendon
      • Coronary ligament
    • Knee bursa
      • Infrapatellar bursa
      • Pes anserine bursa
      • Iliotibial band bursa
    • Bakers cyst
    • Genicular nerve block
      • Genicular nerve radiofrequency ablation
  • Hip injections
    • Regenerative medicine procedures
      • PRP
      • PDGF
      • BMAC
      • Lipgems
      • Prolotherapy
    • Joint injections with medications
      • Steroids
    • Radiofrequency ablation for joint pain
    • Adductor tendons
    • Hamstring tendon origin
    • Hip bursa injections
      • Gluteal bursa
      • Psoas bursa
      • Trochanteric bursa
    • Peripheral nerve stimulation
  • Ankle and foot injections
    • Joints
      • Ankle joint injections
      • Subtalar joint
      • Metatarsal joint
      • Toe joints
  • Ligaments
    • Deltoid ligament
    • Lateral ligament
    • Achilles ligament and bursa
    • Peroneal tendons
    • Plantar fascia
  • Shoulder injections
    • Joint injections
      • Shoulder joint
      • Acromio-clavicular joint
      • Sterno-clavicular joint
    • Rotator cuff and musculoskeletal injections
      • Supraspinatus tendon
      • Infraspinatus tendon
      • Subscapularis tendon and bursa
      • Subdeltoid bursa
      • Suprascapular nerve block
      • Rotator cuff injections with medications or regenerative medicine products
      • Suprascapular nerve block
  • Elbow injections
    • Common extensor tendon
    • Common flexor tendon
    • Biceps tendon insertion
    • Olecranon bursa
  • Wrist joint injections
    • Inferior radio-ulnar joint
    • Thumb joint
    • Thumb tendons
    • Flexor tendon nodule
    • Carpal tunnel

Special Procedures

  • Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty
    • For compression fractures
  • Radiofrequency thermocoagulation
  • MILD procedure
  • IDET procedure


  • Ketamine infusion
    • DX: Chronic pain, intractable depression, PTSD
  • Lidocaine infusion
    • DX: Chronic pain

Laser Treatments

Phoenix TheraLase

DX: Achilles tendonitis, tendinitis, acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain, adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder, Ankle sprain, carpal tunnel syndrome, Buerger’s Disease, cervical spine pain, dental hypersensitivity, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic ulcers, headaches, hemangioma, keloids, knee pain, lateral and medial epicondylitis (tennis and golf elbow, low back pain, neuropathic pain, orofacial pain, osteoarthritis, Patellofemoral pain (runner’s knee), hidradenitis suppurativa, TMJ. Wound care, Trigger point, trigeminal neuralgia, Ankylosing Spondylitis

Types Of Treatments

  • Regenerative medicine procedures - removing and processing your body’s own healing stem cells and growth factors to harness the power for localized benefit.
    • PRP
    • PDGF
    • BMAC
    • Lipogems
    • Prolotherapy
    • Laser therapy
  • Steroid injections
  • Local anesthetic
  • Viscosupplements
    • Supartz
    • Synvisc
  • Diagnostic injections -- typically local
  • Diagnostic, potentially therapeutic injections -- typically local and steroid
  • Infusions
  • Regenerative medicine procedures
    • DX: Cervical, thoracic or lumbar: radiculopathy, spinal stenosis, herniated disc, compression fracture, nerve cyst, shingles, postherpetic neuralgia, need for mapping of spinal pain
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